Tuesday, April 30, 2013



The physical disasters that follow the continued use of intoxicating beverages are sad enough, and terrible enough; but the surely attendant mental, moral and spiritual disasters are sadder and more terrible still. If you disturb the healthy condition of the brain, which is the physical organ through which the mind acts, you disturb the mind. It will not have the same clearness of perception as before; nor have the same rational control over the impulses and passions.

Heavenly order in the body.

In order to understand a subject clearly, certain general laws, or principles, must be seen and admitted. And here we assume, as a general truth, that health in the human body is normal heavenly order on the physical plane of life, and that any disturbance of that order exposes the man to destructive influences, which are evil and infernal in their character. Above the natural and physical plane, and resting upon it, while man lives in this world, is the mental and spiritual plane, or degree of life. This degree is in heavenly order when the reason is clear, and the appetites and passions under its wise control. But, if, through any cause, this fine equipoise is disturbed, or lost, then a way is opened for the influx of more subtle evil influences than such as invade the body, because they have power to act upon the reason and the passions, obscuring the one and inflaming the others.

We know how surely the loss of bodily health results in mental disturbance. If the seat of disease be remote from the brain, the disturbance is usually slight; but it increases as the trouble comes nearer and nearer to that organ, and shows itself in multiform ways according to character, temperament or inherited disposition; but almost always in a predominance of what is evil instead of good. There will be fretfulness, or ill-nature, or selfish exactions, or mental obscurity, or unreasoning demands, or, it may be, vicious and cruel propensities, where, when the brain was undisturbed by disease, reason held rule with patience and loving kindness. If the disease which has attacked the brain goes on increasing, the mental disease which follows as a consequence of organic disturbance or deterioration, will have increased also, until insanity may be established in some one or more of its many sad and varied forms.


It is, therefore, a very serious thing for a man to take into his body any substance which, on reaching that wonderfully delicate organ the brain, sets up therein a diseased action; for, diseased mental action is sure to follow. A fever is a fever, whether it be light or intensely burning; and so any disturbance of the mind's rational equipoise is insanity, whether it be in the simplest form of temporary obscurity, or in the midnight of a totally darkened intellect.

We are not writing in the interest of any special theory, nor in the spirit of partisanship; but with an earnest desire to make the truth appear. You must not accept anything simply because we say it, but because he sees it to be true. Now, as to this matter of insanity, let him think calmly. The word is one that gives us a shock; and, as we hear it, we almost involuntarily thank God for the good gift of a well-balanced mind. What, if from any cause this beautiful equipoise should be disturbed and the mind lose its power to think clearly, or to hold the lower passions in due control? Shall we exceed the truth if we say that the man in whom this takes place is insane just in the degree that he has lost his rational self-control; and that he is restored when he regains that control?

In this view, the question as to the hurtfulness of alcoholic drinks assumes a new and graver aspect. Do they disturb the brain when they come in contact with its substance; and deteriorate it if the contact be long continued? Fact, observation, experience and scientific investigation all emphatically say yes; and we know that if the brain be disordered the mind, will be disordered, likewise; and a disordered mind is an insane mind. Clearly, then, in the degree that a man impairs or hurts his brain temporarily or continuously in that degree his mind is unbalanced; in that degree he is not a truly rational and sane man.

We are holding your thought just here that you may have time to think, and to look at the question in the light of reason and common sense. So far as he does this, will he be able to feel the force of such evidence as we shall educe in what follows, and to comprehend its true meaning.

Other substances besides alcohol act injuriously on the brain; but there is none that compares with this in the extent, variety and diabolical aspect of the mental aberrations which follow its use. We are not speaking thoughtlessly or wildly; but simply uttering a truth well-known to every man of observation, and which every man, and especially those who take this substance in any form, should, lay deeply to heart. Why it is that such awful and destructive forms of insanity should follow, as they do, the use of alcohol it is not for us to say. That they do follow it, we know, and we hold, up the fact in solemn warning.

Another consideration, which should have weight with every one, is this, that no man can tell what may be the character of the legacy he has received from his ancestors. He may have an inheritance of latent evil forces, transmitted through many generations, which only await some favoring opportunity to spring into life and action. So long as he maintains a rational self-control, and the healthy order of his life be not disturbed, they may continue quiescent; but if his brain loses its equipoise, or is hurt or impaired, then a diseased psychical condition may be induced and the latent evil forces be quickened into life.

Thursday, April 25, 2013



Dr. Ezra M. Hunt says: "The capacity of the alcohols for impairment of functions and the initiation and promotion of organic lesions in vital parts, is unsurpassed by any record in the whole range of medicine.  The facts as to this are so indisputable, and so far granted by the profession, as to be no longer debatable . Changes in stomach and liver, in kidneys and lungs, in the blood-vessels to the minutest capillary, and in the blood to the smallest red and white blood disc disturbances of secretion, fibroid and fatty degenerations in almost every organ, impairment of muscular power, impressions so profound on both nervous systems as to be often toxic these, and such as these, are the oft manifested results. And these are not confined to those called intemperate."

Professor Youmans says: "It is evident that, so far from being the conservator of health, alcohol is an active and powerful cause of disease, interfering, as it does, with the respiration, the circulation and the nutrition; now, is any other result possible?"

Dr. F.R. Lees says: "That alcohol should contribute to the fattening process under certain conditions, and produce in drinkers fatty degeneration of the blood, follows, as a matter of course, since, on the one hand, we have an agent that  retains waste  matter by lowering the nutritive and excretory functions, and on the other, a  direct poisoner  of the vesicles of the vital stream."

Dr. Henry Monroe says: "There is no kind of tissue, whether healthy or morbid, that may not undergo fatty degeneration; and there is no organic disease so troublesome to the medical man, or so difficult of cure. If, by the aid of the microscope, we examine a very fine section of muscle taken from a person in good health, we find the muscles firm, elastic and of a bright red color, made up of parallel fibres, with beautiful crossings or striae; but, if we similarly examine the muscle of a man who leads an idle, sedentary life, and indulges in intoxicating drinks, we detect, at once, a pale, flabby, inelastic, oily appearance. Alcoholic narcotization appears to produce this peculiar conditions of the tissues  more than any other agent with which we are acquainted.  'Three-quarters of the chronic illness which the medical man has to treat,' says Dr. Chambers, 'are occasioned by this disease.' The eminent French analytical chemist, Lecanu, found as much as one hundred and seventeen parts of fat in one thousand parts of a drunkard's blood, the highest estimate of the quantity in health being eight and one-quarter parts, while the ordinary quantity is not more than two or three parts, so that the blood of the drunkard contains forty times in excess of the ordinary quantity."

Dr. Hammond, who has written, in partial defense of alcohol as containing a food power, says: "When I say that it, of all other causes,  is most prolific  in exciting derangements of the brain, the spinal cord and the nerves, I make a statement which my own experience shows to be correct."

Another eminent physician says of alcohol: "It substitutes suppuration for growth. It helps time to produce the effects of age; and, in a word, is the genius of degeneration."

Dr. Monroe, from whom "Alcohol, taken in small quantities, or largely diluted,  as in the form of beer, causes the stomach gradually to lose its tone, and makes  it dependent upon artificial stimulus. Atony, or want of tone of the stomach, gradually supervenes, and incurable disorder of health results. Should a dose of alcoholic drink be taken daily, the heart will very often become hypertrophied, or enlarged throughout. Indeed, it is painful to witness how  many  persons are actually laboring under disease of the heart, owing chiefly to the use of alcoholic liquors."

Dr. T.K. Chambers, physician to the Prince of Wales, says: "Alcohol is really the most ungenerous diet there is. It impoverishes the blood, and there is no surer road to that degeneration of muscular fibre so much to be feared; and in heart disease it is more especially hurtful, by quickening the beat, causing capillary congestion and irregular circulation, and thus mechanically inducing dilatation."

Sir Henry Thompson, a distinguished surgeon, says: "Don't take your daily wine under any pretext of its doing you good. Take it frankly as a luxury one which must be paid for, by some persons very lightly, by some at a high price,  but always to be paid for. And, mostly, some loss of health, or of mental power, or of calmness of temper, or of judgment, is the price."

Dr. Charles Jewett says: "The late Prof. Parks, of England, in his great work on Hygiene, has effectually disposed of the notion, long and very generally entertained, that alcohol is a valuable prophylactic where a bad climate, bad water and other conditions unfavorable to health, exist; and an unfortunate experiment with the article, in the Union army, on the banks of the Chickahominy, in the year 1863, proved conclusively that, instead of guarding the human constitution against the influence of agencies hostile to health, its use gives to them additional force. The medical history of the British army in India teaches the same lesson."

But why present farther testimony? Is not the evidence complete? To the man who values good health; who would not lay the foundation for disease and suffering in his later years, we need not offer a single additional argument in favor of entire abstinence from alcoholic drinks. He will eschew them as poisons.

Monday, April 22, 2013



The transforming power or alcohol is marvelous, and often appalling. It seems to open a way of entrance into the soul for all classes of foolish, insane or malignant spirits, who, so long as it remains in contact with the brain, are able to hold possession. Men of the kindest nature when sober, act often like fiends when drunk. Crimes and outrages are committed, which shock and shame the perpetrators when the excitement of inebriation has passed away. Referring to this subject, Dr. Henry Munroe says:

"It appears from the experience of Mr. Fletcher, who has paid much attention to the cases of drunkards, from the remarks of Mr. Dunn, in his 'Medical Psychology,' and from observations of my own, that there is some analogy between our physical and psychical natures; for, as the physical part of us, when its power is at a low ebb, becomes susceptible of morbid influences which, in full vigor, would pass over it without effect, so when the psychical (synonymous with the  moral ) part of the brain has its healthy function disturbed and deranged by the introduction of a morbid poison like alcohol, the individual so circumstanced sinks in depravity, and "becomes the helpless subject of the forces of evil, "which are powerless against a nature free from the morbid influences of alcohol."

Different persons are affected in different ways by the same poison. Indulgence in alcoholic drinks may act upon one or more of the cerebral organs; and, as its necessary consequence, the manifestations of functional disturbance will follow in such of the mental powers as these organs subserve. If the indulgence be continued, then, either from deranged nutrition or organic lesion, manifestations formerly developed only during a fit of intoxication may become  permanent , and terminate in insanity or dypso-mania. M. Flourens first pointed out the fact that certain morbific agents, when introduced into the current of the circulation, tend to act  primarily  and  specially  on one nervous centre in preference to that of another, by virtue of some special elective affinity between such morbific agents and certain ganglia. Thus, in the tottering gait of the tipsy man, we see the influence of alcohol upon the functions of the  cerebellum  in the impairment of its power of co-ordinating the muscles.

Certain writers on diseases of the mind make especial allusion to that form of insanity termed 'dypsomania', in which a person has an unquenchable thirst for alcoholic drinks a tendency as decidedly maniacal as that of  homicidal mania ; or the uncontrollable desire to burn, termed  pyromania ; or to steal, called  kleptomania.

Homicidal mania.

The different tendencies of homicidal mania in different individuals are often only nursed into action when the current of the blood has been poisoned with alcohol. I had a case of a person who, whenever his brain was so excited, told me that he experienced a most uncontrollable desire to kill or injure some one; so much so, that he could at times hardly restrain himself from the action, and was obliged to refrain from all stimulants, lest, in an unlucky moment, he might commit himself. Townley, who murdered the young lady of his affections, for which he was sentenced to be imprisoned in a lunatic asylum for life,  poisoned his brain with brandy  and soda-water before he committed the rash act. The brandy stimulated into action certain portions of the brain, which acquired such a power as to subjugate his will, and hurry him to the performance of a frightful deed, opposed alike to his better judgment and his ordinary desires.

As to pyromania , some years ago I knew a laboring man in a country village, who, whenever he had had a few glasses of ale at the public-house, would chuckle with delight at the thought of firing certain gentlemen's stacks. Yet, when his brain was free from the poison, a quieter, better-disposed man could not be. Unfortunately, he became addicted to habits of intoxication; and, one night, under alcoholic excitement, fired some stacks belonging to his employers, for which, he was sentenced for fifteen years to a penal settlement, where his brain would never again be alcoholically excited.


Next, I will give an example of  kleptomania . I knew, many years ago, a very clever, industrious and talented young man, who told me that whenever he had been drinking, he could hardly withstand, the temptation of stealing anything that came in his way; but that these feelings never troubled him at other times. One afternoon, after he had been indulging with his fellow-workmen in drink, his will, unfortunately, was overpowered, and he took from the mansion where he was working some articles of worth, for which he was accused, and afterwards sentenced to a term of imprisonment. When set at liberty he had the good fortune to be placed among some kind-hearted persons, vulgarly called teetotallers ; and, from conscientious motives, signed the PLEDGE, now above twenty years ago. From that time to the present moment he has never experienced the overmastering desire which so often beset him in his drinking days to take that which was not his own. Moreover, no pretext on earth could now entice him to taste of any liquor containing alcohol, feeling that, under its influence, he might again fall its victim. He holds an influential position in the town where he resides.

I have known some ladies of good position in society, who, after a dinner or supper-party, and after having taken sundry glasses of wine, could not withstand the temptation of taking home any little article not their own, when the opportunity offered; and who, in their sober moments, have returned them, as if taken by mistake. We have many instances recorded in our police reports of gentlemen of position, under the influence of drink, committing thefts of the most paltry articles, afterwards returned to the owners by their friends, which can only be accounted for, psychologically, by the fact that the  will  had been for the time completely overpowered by the subtle influence of alcohol.

Loss of mental clearness.

Alcohol, whether taken in large or small doses, immediately disturbs the natural functions of the mind and body, is now conceded by the most eminent physiologists. Dr. Brinton says: 'Mental acuteness, accuracy of conception, and delicacy of the senses, are all so far opposed by the action of alcohol, as that the maximum efforts of each are  incompatible  with the ingestion of any moderate quantity of fermented liquid. Indeed, there is scarcely any calling which demands skillful and exact effort of mind and body, or which requires the balanced exercise of many faculties, that does not illustrate this rule. The mathematician, the gambler, the metaphysician, the billiard-player, the author, the artist, the physician, would, if they could analyze their experience aright, generally concur in the statement, that  a single glass will often suffice to take , so to speak,  the edge off both mind and body , and to reduce their capacity to something below what is relatively their perfection of work.

A train was driven carelessly into one of the principal London stations, running into another train, killing, by the collision, six or seven persons, and injuring many others. From the evidence at the inquest, it appeared that the guard was reckoned sober, only he had had two glasses of ale with a friend at a previous station. Now, reasoning psychologically, these two glasses of ale had probably been instrumental in  taking off the edge  from his perceptions and prudence, and producing a carelessness or boldness of action which would not have occurred under the cooling, temperate influence of a beverage free from alcohol. Many persons have admitted to me that they were not the same after taking even one glass of ale or wine that they were before, and could not  thoroughly  trust themselves after they had taken this single glass.

Impairment of memory.

An impairment of the memory is among the early symptoms of alcoholic derangement.

"This," says Dr. Richardson, "extends even to forgetfulness of the commonest things; to names of familiar persons, to dates, to duties of daily life. Strangely, too," he adds, "this failure, like that which indicates, in the aged, the era of second childishness and mere oblivion, does not extend to the things of the past, but is confined to events that are passing. On old memories the mind retains its power; on new ones it requires constant prompting and sustainment."

In this failure of memory nature gives a solemn warning that imminent peril is at hand. Well for the habitual drinker if he heed the warning. Should he not do so, symptoms of a more serious character will, in time, develop themselves, as the brain becomes more and more diseased, ending, it may be, in permanent insanity.

Mental and moral diseases.

Of the mental and moral diseases which too often follow the regular drinking of alcohol, we have painful records in asylum reports, in medical testimony and in our daily observation and experience. These are so full and varied, and thrust so constantly on our attention, that the wonder is that men are not afraid to run the terrible risks involved even in what is called the moderate use of alcoholic beverages.

In 1872, a select committee of the House of Commons, appointed "to consider the best plan for the control and management of habitual drunkards," called upon some of the most eminent medical men in Great Britain to give their testimony in answer to a large number of questions, embracing every topic within the range of inquiry, from the pathology of inebriation to the practical usefulness of prohibitory laws. In this testimony much was said about the effect of alcoholic stimulation on the mental condition and moral character. One physician, Dr. James Crichton Brown, who, in ten years' experience as superintendent of lunatic asylums, has paid special attention to the relations of habitual drunkenness to insanity, having carefully examined five hundred cases, testified that alcohol, taken in excess, produced different forms of mental disease, of which he mentioned four classes: 1.  Mania a potu , or alcoholic mania. 2. The monomania of suspicion. 3. Chronic alcoholism, characterized by failure of the memory and power of judgment, with partial paralysis generally ending fatally. 4. Dypsomania, or an  irresistible  craving for alcoholic stimulants, occuring very frequently, paroxysmally, and with constant liability to periodical exacerbations, when the craving becomes altogether uncontrollable. Of this latter form of disease, he says: "This is invariably associated with a certain  impairment of the intellect, and of the affections and the moral powers ."

Dr. Alexander Peddie, a physician of over thirty-seven years' practice in Edinburgh, gave, in his evidence, many remarkable instances of the moral perversions that followed continued drinking.

Relation between insanity and drunkenness.

Dr. John Nugent said that his experience of twenty-six years among lunatics, led him to believe that there is a very close relation between the results of the abuse of alcohol and insanity. The population of Ireland had decreased, he said, two millions in twenty-five years, but there was the same amount of insanity now that there was before. He attributed this, in a great measure, to indulgence in drink.

Dr. Arthur Mitchell, Commissioner of Lunacy for Scotland, testified that the excessive use of alcohol caused a large amount of the lunacy, crime and pauperism of that country. In some men, he said, habitual drinking leads to other diseases than insanity, because the effect is always in the direction of the proclivity, but it is certain that there are many in whom there is a clear proclivity to insanity,  who would escape that dreadful consummation but for drinking; excessive drinking in many persons determining the insanity to which they are, at any rate, predisposed . The children of drunkards, he further said, are in a larger proportion idiotic than other children, and in a larger proportion become themselves drunkards; they are also in a larger proportion liable to the ordinary forms of acquired insanity.

Dr. Winslow Forbes believed that in the habitual drunkard the whole nervous structure, and the brain especially, became poisoned by alcohol. All the mental symptoms which you see accompanying ordinary intoxication, he remarks, result from the poisonous effects of alcohol on the brain. It is the brain which is mainly effected. In temporary drunkenness, the brain becomes in an abnormal state of alimentation, and if this habit is persisted in for years, the nervous tissue itself becomes permeated with alcohol, and organic changes take place in the nervous tissues of the brain, producing  that frightful and dreadful chronic insanity which we see in lunatic asylums, traceable entirely to habits of intoxication . A large percentage of frightful mental and brain disturbances can, he declared, be traced to the drunkenness of parents.

Dr. D.G. Dodge, late of the New York State Inebriate Asylum, who, with. Dr. Joseph Parrish, gave testimony before the committee of the House of Commons, said, in one of his answers: "With the excessive use of alcohol, functional disorder will invariably appear, and no organ will be more seriously affected, and possibly impaired, than the brain.  This is shown in the inebriate by a weakened intellect, a general debility of the mental faculties , a partial or total loss of self-respect, and a departure of the power of self-command; all of which, acting together, place the victim at the mercy of a depraved and morbid appetite, and make him utterly powerless, by his own unaided efforts, to secure his recovery from the disease which is destroying him." And he adds: "I am of opinion that there is a "great similarity between inebriety and insanity.

"I am decidedly of opinion that the former has taken its place in the family of diseases as prominently as its twin-brother insanity; and, in my opinion, the day is not far distant when the pathology of the former will be as fully understood and as successfully treated as the latter, and even more successfully, since it is more within the reach and bounds of human control, which, wisely exercised and scientifically administered, may prevent curable inebriation from verging into possible incurable insanity."

General impairment of the faculties.

Dr. Richardson, speaking of the action of alcohol on the mind, gives the following sad picture of its ravages:

"An analysis of the condition of the mind induced and maintained by the free daily use of alcohol as a drink, reveals a singular order of facts. The manifestation fails altogether to reveal the exaltation of any reasoning power in a useful or satisfactory direction. I have never met with an instance in which such a claim for alcohol has been made. On the contrary, confirmed alcoholics constantly say that for this or that work, requiring thought and attention, it is necessary to forego some of the usual potations in order to have a cool head for hard work.

"On the other side, the experience is overwhelmingly in favor of the observation that the use of "alcohol sells the reasoning powers, "make weak men and women the easy prey of the wicked and strong, and leads men and women who should know better into every grade of misery and vice. If, then, alcohol enfeebles the reason, what part of the mental constitution does it exalt and excite? It excites and exalts those animal, organic, emotional centres of mind which, in the dual nature of man, so often cross and oppose that pure and abstract reasoning nature which lifts man above the lower animals, and rightly exercised, little lower than the angels.

It excites man's worst passions.

Exciting these animal centres, it lets loose all the passions, and gives them more or less of unlicensed dominion over the man. It excites anger, and when it does not lead to this extreme, it keeps the mind fretful, irritable, dissatisfied and captious.... And if I were to take you through all the passions, love, hate, lust, envy, avarice and pride, I should but show you that alcohol ministers to them all; that, paralyzing the reason, it takes from off these passions that fine adjustment of reason, which places man above the lower animals. From the beginning to the end of its influence it subdues reason and sets the passions free. The analogies, physical and mental, are perfect. That which loosens the tension of the vessels which feed the body with due order and precision, and, thereby, lets loose the heart to violent excess and unbridled motion, loosens, also, the reason and lets loose the passion. In both instances, heart and head are, for a time, out of harmony; their balance broken. The man descends closer and closer to the lower animals. From the angels he glides farther and farther away.

A sad and terrible picture.

The  destructive  effects of alcohol on the human mind present, finally, the saddest picture of its influence. The most aesthetic artist can find no angel here. All is animal, and animal of the worst type. Memory irretrievably lost, words and very elements of speech forgotten or words displaced to have no meaning in them. Rage and anger persistent and mischievous, or remittent and impotent. Fear at every corner of life, distrust on every side, grief merged into blank despair, hopelessness into permanent melancholy. Surely no Pandemonium that ever poet dreamt of could equal that which would exist if all the drunkards of the world were driven into one mortal sphere.

As I have moved among those who are physically stricken with alcohol, and have detected under the various disguises of name the fatal diseases, the pains and penalties it imposes on the body, the picture has been sufficiently cruel. But even that picture pales, as I conjure up, without any stretch of imagination, the devastations which the same agent inflicts on the mind. Forty per cent., the learned Superintendent of Colney Hatch, Dr. Sheppard, tells us, of those who were brought into that asylum in 1876, were so brought because of the direct or indirect effects of alcohol. If the facts of all the asylums were collected with equal care, the same tale would, I fear, be told. What need we further to show the destructive action on the human mind? The Pandemonium of drunkards; the grand transformation scene of that pantomime of drink which commences with, moderation! Let it never more be forgotten by those who love their fellow-men until, through their efforts, it is closed forever."

Sunday, April 21, 2013




Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of a food material or a drink which contains the pathogenic micro organism or their toxins or poisonous chemicals.Food poisoning is common in hostels,hotels,communal feedings, and festivel seasons.

A group of persons will be affected with same type of symptoms ,and they give a history of consumption of a common food before few hours.

Types of food poisoning

1) Bacterial food poisoning:

Here the micro organisms called bacteria are responsible.The food material may contain the pathogenic bacteriae or their toxin and will be ingested along with the food.

2) Non bacterial food poisoning:

Due to the presence of toxic chemicals like fertilizers,insectisides,heavy metals and ect.

Since bacterial food poisoning is common it is discussed here.

Bacterial food poisoning:

All bacteria are not harmful.There are some pathogenic bacteria which secrete toxins and cause clinical manifestations.These organisms enter the human body through food articles or drinks.

How food poisoning occures:

1) Presence of bacteria in the water.

2) The raw materials for the food may contain toxins.

3) Premises where the food is prepared may contain micro organisms or toxins.

4) Food handlers may have some infectious diseases.

5) Some animals like dogs,rats may contaminate the food.

6) If prepared food is kept in the room temperature for a long time and heated again can make a chance for food poisoning.

7) Purposely some body mixing toxins in the food.

Some common bacterial food poisonings.

1) Salmonella food poisoning:

There are three different varieties of salmonella bacteria.(salmonella typhimurium,salmonella cholera suis,salmonella enteritidis) These bacteria are present in milk, milk products and eggs.  Symptoms of this food poisoning include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.  Fever is also common.

2) Botulism:

This is the dangerous type of food poisoning caused by clostridium botulinum.   The spores of these organisms are seen in the soil and enters the human body through pickles and canned fish ect.Compared to other food poisonings here vomiting and diarrhoea are rare Mainly the nervous system is affected.The symptoms starts with double vision,numbness with weakness.Later there will be paralysis with cardiac and respiratory failure ending in death.

3) Staphylococcal food poisoning:

It is caused by staphylo coccus aureus. These organisms usually cause skin troubles like boils and eruptions.It causes mastitis in cow.Through the milk and milk products it enders and causes gastroenteritis.There will be vomiting,abdominal cramps with diarrhoea.

4) Closteridium food poisoning:

This is caused by closteridium perfringens.They are present in stool,soil and water. They enter the body through,meat,meat dishes and egg ect.If food articles are cooked and kept in room temperature for a long time and heated again before eating can result this food poisoning.Symptoms include vomiting ,diarrhoea and abdominal cramps.

5) Bacillus cereus:

The spores of these organisms can survive cooking and causes enteritis.  Diarrhoea and vomiting is common in this infection.

How to investigate food poisoning?

1) Examine each and every person affected.

2) Water sample should be tested.

3) Kitchen, store room and food samples should be examined.

4) The cook and food handlers should be questioned and examined.

5) Samples of vomitus and stool of all victims should be tested to identify the bacteria.

How to prevent food poisoning:-

1) Only purified water should be used.

2) Hygiene should be maintained by all persons keeping contact with food.

3) Workers should use masks, cap and gloves during cooking and serving.

4) Sick individuals should not come in contact with food materials.

5) Kitchen and premises should be neat and clean.

5) Vessels should be washed with soap and hot water.

6) Should not keep the prepared food for a long time in room temperature.

7) All food materials should be kept in closed containers.

8) Animals like dog, cat, rat ect should not come in contact with food materials.

9) Vegetables should be washed before cooking.

10) Meat should be fresh and should be purchased from recognised slaughter house.

Saturday, April 20, 2013



Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says:

"Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact,  so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid."

It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those who freely indulge in its use. Its effect, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson:

"As it passes through the circulation of the lungs it is exposed to the air, and some little of it, raised into vapor by the natural heat, is thrown off in expiration. If the quantity of it be large, this loss may be considerable, and the odor of the spirit may be detected in the expired breath. If the quantity be small, the loss will be comparatively little, as the spirit will be held in solution by the water in the blood. After it has passed through the lungs, and has been driven by the left heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what is called the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries here extend into very small vessels, which are called arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, which are ultimately to become the great rivers bearing the blood back to the heart. In its passage through this minute circulation the alcohol finds its way to every organ. To this brain, to these muscles, to these secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony structure itself, it moves with the blood. In some of these parts which are not excreting, it remains for a time diffused, and in those parts where there is a large percentage of water, it remains longer than in other parts. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, as the liver and kidneys, it is thrown out or eliminated, and in this way a portion of it is ultimately removed from the body. The rest passing round and round with the circulation, is probably decomposed and carried off in new forms of matter.

"When we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage through the body, from the period of its absorption to that of its elimination, we are the better able to judge what physical changes it induces in the different organs and structures with which it comes in contact. It first reaches the blood; but, as a rule, the quantity of it that enters is insufficient to produce any material effect on that fluid. If, however, the dose taken be poisonous or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, rich as it is in water and it contains seven hundred and ninety parts in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is diffused through this water, and there it comes in contact with the other constituent parts, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is present in the proportion of from two to three parts in a thousand; with the albumen which exists in the proportion of seventy parts; with the salts which yield about ten parts; with the fatty matters; and lastly, with those minute, round bodies which float in myriads in the blood (which were discovered by the Dutch philosopher, Leuwenhock, as one of the first results of microscopical observation, about the middle of the seventeenth century), and which are called the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named bodies are, in fact, cells; their discs, when natural, have a smooth outline, they are depressed in the centre, and they are red in color; the color of the blood being derived from them. We have discovered that there exist other corpuscles or cells in the blood in much smaller quantity, which are called white cells, and these different cells float in the blood-stream within the vessels. The red take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally near the sides of the vessels, moving less quickly. Our business is mainly with the red corpuscles. They perform the most important functions in the economy; they absorb, in great part, the oxygen which we inhale in breathing, and carry it to the extreme tissues of the body; they absorb, in great part, the carbonic acid gas which is produced in the combustion of the body in the extreme tissues, and bring that gas back to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; in short, they are the vital instruments of the circulation.

"With all these parts of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol comes in contact when it enters the blood, and, if it be in sufficient quantity, it produces disturbing action. I have watched this disturbance very carefully on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we can see these floating along during life, and we can also observe them from men who are under the effects of alcohol, by removing a speck of blood, and examining it with the microscope. The action of the alcohol, when it is observable, is varied. It may cause the corpuscles to run too closely together, and to adhere in rolls; it may modify their outline, making the clear-defined, smooth, outer edge irregular or crenate, or even starlike; it may change the round corpuscle into the oval form, or, in very extreme cases, it may produce what I may call a truncated form of corpuscles, in which the change is so great that if we did not trace it through all its stages, we should be puzzled to know whether the object looked at were indeed a blood-cell. All these changes are due to the action of the spirit upon the water contained in the corpuscles; upon the capacity of the spirit to extract water from them. During every stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their function to absorb and fix gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in masses, is great, other difficulties arise, for the cells, united together, pass less easily than they should through the minute vessels of the lungs and of the general circulation, and impede the current, by which local injury is produced.

"A further action upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in excess, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit may act in two different ways, according to the degree in which it affects the water that holds the fibrine in solution. It may fix the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the power of coagulation; or it may extract the water so determinately as to produce coagulation."

Friday, April 19, 2013

Precautions to be taken while combing hair

Precautions to be taken while combing hair

Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people.Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion.Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person.The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing.To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed.General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair.Regular washing,use of hair oil,proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful.General hints for combing is discussed here.

1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market.The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft,long or short) ,style and convenience.
2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration.Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the hairs.

3) Combing should be gentle .A vigorous combing can increase hairfalling.

4) Do not comb if the hair is wet.  First dry it with a towel and then put some oil and gently massage it.Now the combing will be easy and harmless.

5) Should not be combed in the opposite direction of hairs.This can increase hair falling.

6) Vigorous combing in backward direction can produce traction baldness.

7) Frequent combing can damage the scalp and the hair follicles.Those who carry pocket comb use it frequently and make it a habit.Combing two or three times in a day is sufficient.

8) The tooth of the comb should not be sharp and it should not be pressed too tightly on the scalp.

9) Always clean the comb before and after use because hair and dirt deposited in the gap will make combing diffucult and painful.

10) Others comb should not be used.This helps to prevent fungal and bacterial infections.Head lice can also spread from one person to other by sharing the combs.

11) Combing the tangled hair is difficult and painful.Hence use some shampoo for cleaning and after drying  put oil and make the hairs free for an easy combing.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Homoeopathy for bad breath

Homoeopathy  for bad breath

Offenssive smell from the mouth is a common complaint in the day to day medical practice.It mainly affects those who mingle with others very closely. Bad breath is noticed mainly by the friends & family members or some times person himself feel it and come to the doctor.Many badbreathers develop depression which forces them to be away from the society which in turn hampers their activities.
The protein in the food debris are degraded by the anaerobic bacteria present in the mouth.Offenssive odor is produced due to release of  some gases like hydrogen sulphide,skatol ect due to bacterial activity.Formation of a thin sticky membrane on the tongue favoures bacterial growth.Bactrera are also seen in the crypts of tonsils ,dental caries,dental pockets ect.Bad breath is associated with oral hygiene,caries,gingivitis,tonsillitis,tonsillar plaques,food habits,water intake ,tobacco chewing,stomach and liver diseases and ect.

Homoeopathy is a system of medicine introduced by a german physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann.Homoeopathy treats the diseased individual as a whole rather than treating diseased parts or organs.The physical,mental,emotional,social spheres of a person is considered for a permanent cure.This system believes that the diseases are caused due to the derangement of vital force which is an invisible power in every individual.In a healthy state the vital force maintains the equilibrium of mind body and soul .During this man will have normal sensations and functions.When the vital force gets affected there will be external manifestations in the form of signs and symptoms.The imbalance in the body functions makes a shelter for forign organisms(bacteria,viruses,fungi,protozoa ect) and allow them to proliferate &produce so called diseases.Homoeopathy believes thet the real desease comes before the bacteria & viruses,hence the root cause of the disease has to be treated for a permenent cure.The antibacterial and antiviral agents only remove the secondary causes mentioned above.

Diseases are produced by noxious morbific agents called Miasms which are dynamic influences which affect the vital force.There are mainly three miasms PSORA ,SYPHILIS&SYCOSIS. These three causes are accepted by other schools of medicine but called by different names. Psora causes functional disturbances, syphilis cause structural changes in the form of destructions and sycosis causes changes in the form of overgrowth.These three miasms can act individually or in combined form producing different disease conditions.

To treat bad breath with homoeopathic medicine is easy if correct remedy in suitable dose is given. In the homoeopathic medical repertory by Dr Robin Murphy there are 140 homoeopathic drugs mentioned for bad breath.So just giving one drug for bad breath may not give good result.To come to a correct remedial diagnosis we should have the symptomatology of the person .It is the total symptoms of a person which includes mental generals,physical generals,particular symptoms ect.Bad breath is considered as a physical general symptom .Eventhough it comes only from a part of the body it affects the whole individual.

Symptoms related with appetite,thirst,bowels ect are included in physical generals.
All signs and symptoms (mental&physical)of the person is taken in detail.Knowledge about past illneses,family history of diseases,food & bowel habits,relation to climatic changes and constitution ect are noted down in a systematic order.

Mental symptoms:

example: fear,anxiety,depression,anger,jealousy and ect....

Physical symptoms:

example: Body makeup,appetite,thirst,desires,aversions,bowels,urination,sleep,taste, nature of smell,discharges any abnormal sensations like pain, burning ,climatic changes,thermal relations, and ect....

Peculiar uncommon symptoms:

This is the speciality of homoeopathic system of medicine.For the selection of a suitable remedy these symptoms are very important.common symptoms which are seen almost in all patients are least important.

particular/local signs&symptoms:

This include signs &symptoms related to body parts &organs.

example: Coating on the tongue,nature of mucus membrane of  oral cavity, tonsils, gums, teeth, ulcers, discolourations ect are considered here.

Systemic & general physical examination:-

Bad breath can be due to various systemic and disorders.Hence all systems ( respiratory system ,digestive system,nervous system, cardio vascular system and ect )and parts from head to foot should be examined.

provisional disease diagnosis;  Here probable diseases are diagnosed. In homoeopathy disease diagnosis is not that much important for the selection of a  remedy,but needed for general management and to know the prognosis.


This includes lab investigations and other methods to find  out any other major illnesses.
Final disease diagnosis:

After doing all investigations the disease is diagnosed.

Remedial diagnosis:

This is the most importnant part as far as homoeopathy is concerned. For this the selected symptoms are arranged in a systematic order on the basis of importance.                             
symptoms are analysed to find out the importance of each symptom for the selection of a remedy.Remedies are selected on the basis of similarity.[the basic principle of homoeopathy is 'similia similibus curenter' means like cures like.A medicine which can produce some symptoms in a healthy man can be used as a remedy to trea the similar symptoms in a diseased person.Each homoeopathic drug is proved on healthy human beings and the symptoms collected by this process(drug proving) is written in meteria medica.]

Suitable remedies are diagnosed by a process called repertorisation. Here books called repertories are used. Repertory is the index of symptoms of materia medica(books which  contain the symptoms of drugs).Nowadays computer softwares are used for repertorisalion.By this process we will get the remedies covering  maximum important symptom of the patient.

Amoung this group of remedies  the most suitable remedy is selected by referring various books and history of the patient..The selected medicine is given in suitable potency & dose.


The root cause of disease is miasms which should be eradicated using suitable anti miasmatic drugs.Every drug can eradicate the miasm if there is symptom similarity.there are anti psoric drugs,anti syphilitic drugs and anti sycotic drugs.After diagnosing the miasm suitable anti miasmatic drug has to be given to complete the cure.

[In homoeopathy medicines are prepared from different sources like minerals, plants, animals, toxins, diseased parts ect. Medicines are prepared from these substances by a special process called potentisation.Here the soluble  substances are potentised by diluting with spirit and insoluble substances by grinding with sugar of milk.The crude drug substance is first mixed with a calculated quantity of spirit and water and kept for few days .From this mixture extract is taken and is called mother tincture(denoted as Q).From this mother tincture dilutions are prepared by potentisation.Potentisation is a mathematical process by which the quantity of original drug substance reduces but medicinal power increases. Depending upon the ratio of quantity of drug substance and vehicle(spirit or sugar of milk)there are different scales for this process.Each scale has got different potencies which indicate power of medicine.Example in decimal scale 3x,6x.12x ect.in centisimal scale there is 30c,200c ect,in LM poteny there are 0/1,0/2,0/3 ect.potency is written after the name of every medicine]

Same medicine is available in different potencies. Suitable potency is selected according to so many facters like sevearity,depth of disease,condition of the patient ,nature of disease ,type of symptoms,age of patient and ect.

Some useful homoeo drugs for bad breath.

Arnica montana, Antim crude, Ars alb, Asafoetida, Aurum met, Baptisia,    Bryonia,Borax,Calc carb, Carbo veg, Cinchona, Chelidonium, Graphites,  Kali bich ,Kreosotum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Merc sol, Natrum mur,  Nitricum acidum, Nux vomica, Plantago, Pulsatilla, Phos, Pyrogen, Sulphur etc.

1) Arnica montana:

This medicine is useful for fetid breath.Mouth is very dry with thirst for water.Bad breath associated with fever.There is bleeding from the gum,may be after tooth extraction or after injury.Offenssive gas pass upwards and downwards from stomach.Petient is very sensitive to touch with sore and bruised feeling allover the body.

2) Antim crude:

Useful for bad breath with gastric complaints and coated tongue.This medicine act mainly on filthy persons with aversion to bathing.Tongue is coated white like fur.Nostrils and lips are cracked .Eructations are putrid.Very useful for badbreath in children

3) Ars alb:

All discharges are having cadeveric smell.Saliva is bloody with bad odor.Thirst for  warm water is well marked. This medicine act well in debilitated and emaciated persons.Bad  breath associated with gastric disorders.Vomiting from slightest food or drink and intolerance of  vegetables and watery fruits.Mentally these patients are fastidious with an insecurity  feeling.They are having fear of death or serious disease with restlessness and anxiety.

4) Asafoetida:

Useful for bad breath associated with eructations.Great distension of abdomen with sensation of a ball rising in throat.All discharges are offenssive.Reverse peristalsis with loud eructations.This medicine act well on hysterical persons.

5) Aurum met:

Useful for bad breath in girls at puberty. There is ulceration in gums with putrid or bitter taste. Destruction in body tissues like bone is noticed in these patients.This medicine act well on persons who are tired of life with suicidal thoughts.They also have a feeling that they have done an unpardonable crime.

6) Baptisia:

Breath fetid with bitter taste.Gums sore and ulcerated.Yellowish brown coating on centre of tongue with glistening edges.Surface of the tongue is cracked.These patients feel difficult to swallow solid food.Tonsils are enlarged without pain.Useful for painless tonsillitis &   pharyngitis with putrid smell.All discharges are offenssive.This medicine act well on persons having besoted look.There is a tendency for stupor and delirium in these persons.
7) Borax:

Useful for bad  breath associated with apthous ulcer in the mouth.Also effective for fungal infection of the mouth.Mouth is very hot and tender.Ulcers bleed on touch.Very useful for  bad breath in children with ulcers in the mouth.Child is having fear of doward motion.

8) Bryonia:

Irritable persons who always talk about business.Lips parched dry and   cracked.Tongue coated dark brown with bitter taste in the mouth.Thirst for large quantity of  cold  water is well marked.Heaviness in abdomen after eating.Usually constipated with hard  dry  stools.

9) Calcarea fluor:

Plugs of mucus are continually forming in the crypts of the tonsils.Unnatural looseness of the teeth with or without pain.Prone to get caries with discolouration.Tonsils are    enlarged with recurrent infection.

10) Carbo veg:

These patients are weak and debilitated .All body discharges are profuse with   cadeveric smell.Gums are retracted and bleed easily.Frequent putrid eructations with distention   of  abdomen.Complaints ameliorted by passing flatus.Can't tolerate meat and fat.Involuntary    diarrhoea at night.Wants to be fanned from a close distance.

11) Chelidonium:

Tongue yellow with imprint of teeth.Bad odor with bitter taste in the  mouth.Useful for bad breath with liver complaints.Thirst for hot liquids.Patient feels better by eating.  Constipation with hard round stools.Constipation alternating with diarrhoea.

12) Graphites:

This medicine act well on obese patients with skin troubles.Breath smells like urine.Rotten odor with salivation and blisters in the mouth.Sour eructations with gastric complaints.Skin complaints with sticky discharges.Gastric pain ameliorated by eating .

13) kali bich:

Bad breath with gastric ulcer.There are round ulcers in the mouth.Saliva viscid.  Vomiting with bitter taste.Tongue is smooth .Craves bear.Gastric complaints alternating with rheumatism.

14) kreosotum:

Teeth dark and crumbly.Bitter taste in the mouth with putrid odour.Very rapid decay of teeth.All discharges are very offenssive.Gums spongy and bleed easily.Bad breath associated with caries and gastric complaints.

15) Lachesis:

This medicine act on dark restless patients with jelousy.Tongue is black  coloured.   Complaints are aggravated during sleep.Wants fanning from a long distance.Cannot tolerate tight cloathing around body.Complaints aggravated in hot climate.

16) Lycopodium:

Act well on intelligent people who are physically weak.They have lack of self confidence.Useful for badbreath associated with sour eructations with burning in throat.  Teeth excessively painful to touch.There are blisters on the tongue.Wants warm food and drinks.These   people are usually constipated .Craving for sweets well marked.

17) Merc sol:

Sweetish metallic taste in the mouth with bloody viscid saliva. Gum is spongy and  bleed easily.Mouth is moist with increased thirst.Teeth indented. Crown of the teeth decay.Fetid odor from the mouth can be felt all over the room.Ulcerations in the mouth with bleeding.All body discharges are offenssive.All complaints are aggravated at night.

18) Nux vomica:

This medicine act well on people who lead a sedentery life.They are very short tempered and become angry very easily.They are very busy in their occupation and enjoy modern civilised life with all types of food and drink.Bad breath is more after meals and in the morning. Posterior part of the tongue is coated and anterior part is clean.Sour taste in the mouth with nausea in the morning.They have got frequent urge for stool.Heavy feeling in abdomen after food is noticed.

19) Plantago:

Dental caries with severe toothache.Pain better by eating.Salivation is better by eating.  Toothache with swelling of gums.Gargling plantago Q is useful to get relief from   toothache due to caries.

20) Pulsatilla:

Act well on mild and gentle ladies with a yielding disposition.Patient is very timid with a weeping tendency.Bad breath is noticed mainly in the morning.Mouth is very dry but dosn't want to drink water.  Yellow or white tongue covered with a  tenacious mucus.Taste is altered.Taste of food remains in the mouth for a long  time.Patient wash the mouth frequently.

21) Psorinum:

Act well on unclean patients with bad odor.  Hawking up of cheesy, pea like balls of   disgusting smell and taste is the main cause for bad breath in these patients.Tonsils are swollen with profuse offenssive saliva.Quinsy with tough mucus in throat.All body secretions are filthy.Eructations taste like bad eggs.Very hungry and getup even at midnight for food.Swallowing is painful with pain in ears.

22) Pyrogen:

Bad breath of septic origin is cured with this medicine.Taste terribly fetid with horrible breath,tongue red ,dry ,smooth asif varnished.Bad breath associated with high fever and   coffeground vomiting. In general patients body is very sensitive to touch,can't rest on bed because of bruinsed pain.All discharges are offenssive.   

23) Sulphur:

This medicine act best on dirty & filthy people with offenssive odor and a tendecy for skin diseases.Lips dry bright red with burning sensation..Tongue white with red tip & borders.Bitter taste in the morning. Eructations are putrid.Burning in all parts of the body. Aversion to bathing  is well marked.Not bothered about hygiene ,still they believe that they are having superhuman powers.  These individuals are very selfish.

Some homoeo mother tinctures (Q) useful for bad breath.

[mother tincture should not be taken directly because it can produce burning sensation,hence 10 drops should be mixed in half glass of water and taken internally or used for gargling]

1) Cinnamon  Q : This mother tincture can be used for gragling after diluting with  water.Also useful for bleeding from gums.

2) Eucalyptus  Q : This tincture can be used as a mouth wash after mixing with water.Internal use of this medicine can remove mucus from the respiratory tract.Also useful for cold and coryza.
3) Zingiber  Q : Useful for bad breath associated with gastric complaints.  This medicine can improve digestion.Also used for gargling.

4) Rhus glabra Q : Gargling of this tincture is very useful for ulcerative lesions in the mouth like aphthous ulcer.Internal use of this tincture can reduce the bad smell of stool & flatus.

5) Oleum caryophyllum Q : Gargling of this tincture can reduce toothache.Due to it's fregrant quality very useful to reduce bad breath.

6) Balsamum peru Q : This medicine can remove the mucus from respiratory tract hence very useful in chronic bronchitis and lung abscess.Can heal the ulcers in the mouth by gargling  this tincture,it can also produce pleasent smell from the mouth.

7) Menthol Q  : This is a main ingradient in tonics and syrups.Gargling of this tincture reduces  bad breath.